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A Simple Example

Now let's compare a simple ladder diagram with its real world external physically connected relay circuit and SEE the differences.

A simple circuit

In the above circuit, the coil will be energized when there is a closed loop between the + and - terminals of the battery. We can simulate this same circuit with a ladder diagram. A ladder diagram consists of individual rungs just like on a real ladder. Each rung must contain one or more inputs and one or more outputs. The first instruction on a rung must always be an input instruction and the last instruction on a rung should always be an output (or its equivalent).

Circuit converted to ladder diagram

Notice in this simple one rung ladder diagram we have recreated the external circuit above with a ladder diagram. Here we used the Load and Out instructions. Some manufacturers require that every ladder diagram include an END instruction on the last rung. Some PLCs also require an ENDH instruction on the rung after the END rung.

Next we'll trace the registers. Registers? Let's see...

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